czechia, a european country located east of germany, west of poland and north of austria, started as duchy of bohemia in 870, and became a member of the "holy roman empire" in 1002. a kingdom was established in 1198. its capital and dominating city was always prague. after around 1500, bohemia became part of the habsburg empire. after ww-1 czechia and slovakia were merged, in spite of considerable cultural differences. this happened again after ww-2, and "czechoslovakia" was controlled by the sowjet union, until the "velvet revolution" in prague. the linkage ended in 1993, and czechia is now an independent democratic republic. czechia's population is 11 mio. its core features are both industry and culture. i have visited this country in 1971, and prague again in 2008.